By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

ISBN-10: 0120147343

ISBN-13: 9780120147342

This quantity comprises chapters discussing photograph enhancement and propagation, and box behaviour in hugely anisotropic media. it really is meant for researchers in optical technology, electric engineering, picture processing and mechanical engineering.

**Read Online or Download Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 92 PDF**

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**Extra resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 92**

**Example text**

Let us consider the L x L observation window U,centered upon p(x,y ) and represented in Fig. , 4 . More generally, p,, can be considered as the , supposed to be uniform and affected by estimation of the gray value of U,, noise having a certain distribution. Although the optimum estimates differ , the average and the depending on the gray-value distribution inside U,, median Mu represent good estimates in several concrete cases. b a m-'2 2 2 0 2 2 2 Lpixel U FIGURE 16. (a) Observation window U and its one-dimensional subwindows U , , .

B. Histogram Stretching with Equalization. Let us consider the rank r, 1 I r IN, off(x, y) in the set of the ordered gray values of U ;r is defined by means of the scores, u and w, of the pixels of U with gray value inferior to and, respectively, equal to f(x, y): r=u + integer(w/2). ,N, obtained by subdividing the full gray scale into N - 1 regularly spaced intervals. Thus, u(x,y) is the gray value of this set that has the same rank r as that of f(x,y) in the set of the &)'s. Since the ranks are equally distributed (see earlier discussion), the local histogram of the transformed gray values is also equally distributed.

18 shows, on the right, an example of the application of this filter, with a window size of 7 x 7, to the remote sensing view on the left. One can notice that, in spite of the considerable window size needed for smoothing purposes, the anisotropic thin-line details are preserved. 2. Adaptive Extremum Sharpening Filter Controlled by a Measure of the Local Spatial Order Based upon the same idea as the previous filter, this filter aims, more generally, at enhancing all the patterns with a spatially ordered structure, as for instance pattern b in Fig.