By Jacqueline Lenoble, Lorraine Remer, Didier Tanre

ISBN-10: 3642177247

ISBN-13: 9783642177248

This booklet supplies a far wanted clarification of the elemental actual rules of radiative move and distant sensing, and offers all of the tools and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous demeanour. The editors offer, for the 1st time, a simple course from concept to sensible algorithms in a single simply obtainable quantity, making the relationship among theoretical radiative move and person useful suggestions to retrieve aerosol details from distant sensing, and offering the specifics and intercomparison of all present and historic retrieval equipment.

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Sample text

11) can be expanded into series of Legendre polynomials with many fewer terms where than . Physically, this approximation implies that the radiation scattered in the forward peak is simply transmitted; the constant f LV HPSLULFDOO\ GHÀQHG GHSHQGLQJ RQ KRZ WKH forward peak is truncated (Potter, 1970). 3RODUL]DWLRQDQGVFDWWHULQJPDWUL[ ,QJHQHUDOWKHVFDWWHULQJSURFHVVPRGLÀHVWKHVWDWHRISRODUL]DWLRQRIWKHUDGLDWLRQLQFLGHQW on a molecule or a particle. In order to account for this phenomenon appropriately, especially when one has to deal with two or more successive scattering events (see Chapter 3), LWLVÀUVWQHFHVVDU\WRFKRRVHDFRQVLVWHQWUHSUHVHQWDWLRQRISRODUL]HGUDGLDWLRQ 7KH6WRNHVSDUDPHWHUV A time-harmonic plane electromagnetic wave propagating in the direction of the wave vector k is characterized by two orthogonal components El and Er of its complex electric vector E(r, t) = Eexp(LƷW – ik · r) GHÀQHGLQWKHZDYHSODQH LHWKHSODQHQRUPDOWRk), where t is–time, r is the position vector of the observation point, Ʒis the angular frequency, and i ¥ –1.

53 for most dry SDUWLFOHVZLWKDVPDOOLPDJLQDU\SDUWRIï-2. 00 (imaginary). 38. 0035i. 45i (Radiation Commission, 1986), although black carbon is most often found internally mixed with other particle types, especially other organic material, which dilutes these values. Depending on composition, particle refractive indices may have a strong spectral dependence. For example, mineral dust containing some hematite, an iron compound, absorbs strongly in the shortwave, but less so towards the midvisible and higher wavelengths, causing dust particles to appear “reddish” to the eye.

Remote sensing observes these particles from a distance without directly interfering with them. ,QVLWXPHDVXUHPHQWV\VWHPVLQFOXGHSURFHGXUHVWKDWFROOHFWDHURVROSDUWLFOHVRQÀOWHUV DQGDQDO\]HWKHODGHQÀOWHUVLQDODERUDWRU\7KHUHDFKHPLFDODQDO\VLVFDQEHSHUIRUPHG mass concentration determined, and properties such as the refractive index of the bulk PDWHULDORUDEVRUSWLRQSURSHUWLHVFDQEHGLUHFWO\PHDVXUHG,IWKHÀOWHULVQRWWRRKHDYLO\ loaded, electron microscope analysis can be used to estimate size distribution, and identify SDUWLFOHW\SHDQGVKDSH$HURVROVFDQEHFROOHFWHGRQÀOWHUVHLWKHUDWWKH(DUWK·VVXUIDFHRU by airborne instruments on balloon or aircraft.

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