By Vernon Cooray (auth.)
This booklet approximately lightning summarizes the essence of physics and results of lightning in a non-technical demeanour and offers an up to date description of the phenomenon of lightning in basic language. beginning with the myths relating to lightning, the reader is brought to the mechanism of lightning flashes and their interactions with people, human-made platforms and Earth’s setting. lots of the to be had books on lightning are written for the specialists within the box and there's a want for a publication that introduces the undergraduate and starting put up graduate scholars to the topic of lightning and prepares them for extra complicated books intended for the specialists. This introductory publication, that is according to a chain of lectures given to undergraduate and postgraduate scholars in electric engineering, is meant to fill this desire. adapted to the desires of college scholars who plan to check electric engineering, meteorology, environmental or easy physics, it's also a invaluable reference source for laymen who're attracted to figuring out extra in this phenomenon.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Lightning
6 Extension and Charge of Streamer Discharge 17 for that matter) when the background electric field continues to increase with time as happens, for example, just before a lightning strike. As the electric field continues to increase, first electron avalanches are created in the vicinity of the conductor tip. As the electric field increases further, the discharge process changes, and streamers are created. These streamers travel a greater distance than the boundary of the region of space where the electric field is confined to 3 Â 106 V/m.
The amount of charge in the respective charge centers before a cloud lightning flash is q, Q, and À Q, respectively. The cloud lightning flash leads to the neutralization of the ΔQ charge from the negative and positive charge centers (Fig. 12). Let Q 0 ¼ Q À ΔQ. The electric field at ground level at a horizontal distance d from the cloud just before the lightning flash is Ei ¼ À q h1 Q h2 Q h3 þ À : À Á À Á À 3=2 3=2 2 2 2 2 2 2πε0 h þ d 2πε0 h þ d 2πε0 h þ d 2 Á3=2 1 2 3 ð3:39Þ After the lightning flash the field reduces to Ef ¼ À q h1 Q0 h2 Q0 h3 þ À : À Á À Á À 3=2 3=2 2 2 2 2 2 2πε0 h þ d 2πε0 h þ d 2πε0 h þ d2 Á3=2 1 2 3 ð3:40Þ The field change ΔE caused by the cloud lightning flash is ΔE ¼ Ef À Ei : a ð3:41Þ b +Q +(Q−ΔQ) −Q −(Q−ΔQ) +q +q P P d d Fig.
In the diagram, dl is an elementary current element (or a small piece of the conductor carrying a current). 7 Magnetic Field Produced by Current Element Consider a current element dl through which a current I is flowing (Fig. 7). The current element can be represented by a vector dl with magnitude dl and direction specified by the direction of current flow. According to Biot-Savart’s law, the B-field produced by this current element at point P is given by dB ¼ μo I Á dl Â ar 4π jRj2 , ð3:19Þ where ar is a unit vector in the direction of OP (Fig.
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