By H. Gray

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Example text

The body is deeper in front than behind, and prolonged downward anteriorly so as to overlap the upper and fore part of the next vertebra. It presents in front a median longitudinal ridge, separating two lateral depressions, for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles of either side. The odontoid process presents two articulating surfaces covered with cartilage; one in front, of an oval form, for articulation with the atlas (fades articularis anterior) another behind (fades articularis posterior) for the transverse transverse processes are of large size, project directly from the lateral masses, — ; , Odontoidjprocess, Bough surface for checTc ligaments.

Two kinds: articular and nonarticular. Wellmarked examples of articular eminences are found in the heads of the humerus and femur, and of articular depressions in the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the acetabulum. Nonarticular eminences are designated according to their form. Thus a broad, rough, uneven elevation is called a tuberosity; a small, rough prominence, a tubercle; a sharp, slender, pointed eminence, a spine; a narrow, rough elevation, running some way along the surface, a ridge, line, or crest.

He comes to consider the various pathological changes which affect bone. Anything which interferes with the growth at the epiphyseal line will lead to a diminution in the length which the bone should attain in adult life, and similarly anything which interferes with the growth from the deeper layer of the periosteum will result in a disproportion in the thickness of the bone. Thus, separation of the epiphyses, septic or tuberculous disease about the epiphyseal line, and excisions involving the epiphyseal line, will result in varying amounts of shortening of the bone, as compared with that of the opposite side; whereas separation or imperfect nutrition of the periosteum results in defective growth in circumference.

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